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Miller string literals are always written with double quotes, like "abcde"; single quotes are not part of the grammar of Miller's programming language. Single quotes are used for wrapping put/filter statements, as in mlr put '$b=$a.".suffix"' myfile.csv': the single-quotes are consumed by the shell and Miller gets $b=$a.".suffix". (See however the Miller on Windows page.)

A basic string operation is the . (concatenation) operator:

mlr --c2p --from example.csv put '$output = $color . ":" . $shape'
color  shape    flag  k  index quantity rate   output
yellow triangle true  1  11    43.6498  9.8870 yellow:triangle
red    square   true  2  15    79.2778  0.0130 red:square
red    circle   true  3  16    13.8103  2.9010 red:circle
red    square   false 4  48    77.5542  7.4670 red:square
purple triangle false 5  51    81.2290  8.5910 purple:triangle
red    square   false 6  64    77.1991  9.5310 red:square
purple triangle false 7  65    80.1405  5.8240 purple:triangle
yellow circle   true  8  73    63.9785  4.2370 yellow:circle
yellow circle   true  9  87    63.5058  8.3350 yellow:circle
purple square   false 10 91    72.3735  8.2430 purple:square

Also see the list of string-related built-in functions.

1-up indexing

The most important difference between Miller's strings and strings in other languages is that indices start with 1, not 0. (The same is true for Miller arrays.) This is intentional.

1-up indices may feel like a thing of the past, belonging to Fortran and Matlab, say; or R and Julia as well, which are more modern. But the overall trend is decidedly toward 0-up. This means that if Miller does 1-up indices, it should do so for good reasons.

Miller strings are indexed 1-up simply because Miller arrays are indexed 1-up. See this section for the reasoning.

Strings have been in Miller since the beginning, but they weren't accessible using indices or slices until Miller 6. Also, the substr function predates Miller 6. This function was implemented to take 0-up indices. When Miller 6 was implemented, this became inconsistent. As a result, there are substr0 and substr1 functions. For backward compatibility with existing Miller scripts, substr is the same as substr0. But users starting out with Miller 6 will probably want substr1.

Negative-index aliasing

Imitating Python and other languages, you can use negative indices to read backward from the end of the string, while positive indices read forward from the start. If a string has length n then -n..-1 are aliases for 1..n, respectively; 0 is never a valid string index in Miller.

mlr -n put '
  end {
    x = "abcde";
    print x[1];
    print x[-1];
    print x[1:2];
    print x[-2:-1];


Miller supports slicing using [lo:hi] syntax. Either or both of the indices in a slice can be negatively aliased as described above. Unlike in Python, Miller string-slice indices are inclusive on both sides: x[3:5] means x[3] . x[4] . x[5].

mlr -n put '
  end {
    x = "abcde";
    print x[3:4];
    print x[:2];
    print x[3:];
    print x[1:-1];
    print x[2:-2];

Out-of-bounds indexing

Out-of-bounds index accesses are errors, but out-of-bounds slice accesses result in trimming the indices, resulting in a short string or even the empty string. (This behavior intentionally imitates Python.)

mlr -n put '
  end {
    x = "abcde";
    print x[1];
    print x[5];
    print x[6];
mlr -n put '
  end {
    x = "abcde";
    print "\"" . x[1:2] . "\"";
    print "\"" . x[1:6] . "\"";
    print "\"" . x[10:20] . "\"";

Escape sequences for string literals

You can use the following backslash escapes for strings such as between the double quotes in contexts such as mlr filter '$name =~ "..."', mlr put '$name = $othername . "..."', mlr put '$name = sub($name, "...", "..."), etc.:

  • \a: ASCII code 0x07 (alarm/bell)
  • \b: ASCII code 0x08 (backspace)
  • \f: ASCII code 0x0c (formfeed)
  • \n: ASCII code 0x0a (LF/linefeed/newline)
  • \r: ASCII code 0x0d (CR/carriage return)
  • \t: ASCII code 0x09 (tab)
  • \v: ASCII code 0x0b (vertical tab)
  • \\: backslash
  • \": double quote
  • \123: Octal 123, etc. for \000 up to \377
  • \x7f: Hexadecimal 7f, etc. for \x00 up to \xff
  • \u2766, \U00010877:: Unicode literals. For technical reasons, you must supply four hex digits after \u and eight hex digits after \U.
mlr repl
[mlr] "a\nb"

[mlr] "a\tb"
"a  b"

[mlr] "a\x62c"

[mlr] "\u2766\U00010877"

See also

These replacements apply only to strings you key in for the DSL expressions for filter and put: that is, if you type \t in a string literal for a filter/put expression, it will be turned into a tab character. If you want a backslash followed by a t, then please type \\t.

However, these replacements are done automatically only for string literals within DSL expressions -- they are not done automatically to fields within your data stream. If you wish to make these replacements, you can do (for example) mlr put '$field = gsub($field, "\\t", "\t")'. If you need to make such a replacement for all fields in your data, you should probably use the system sed command instead.